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Glossary

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  V  W  Z

 

A

  • AASHTO – American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
  • Abrasion-resistance – the ability of the galvanized coating to resist damage caused by contact with hard, rough, or coarse media or objects
  • Abrasive blasting – the process of using a forceful stream of particles, available in varying hardness, to remove residue and contaminants from steel surfaces to prepare for galvanizing and/or to profile steel surfaces for paint application
  • Adherence – the act, action, or quality of zinc bonding to steel, measured in pounds per square inch (psi) or megapascals (MPa)
  • Aggressive environment – an environment that is particularly corrosive
  • Alloy layers – the interior layers of the galvanized coating comprised of iron/zinc intermetallics formed when molten zinc reacts with iron in the steel
  • Aluminum – element found in the galvanizing bath (added to molten zinc through a product commonly called “brightener bar”) that gives the hot-dip galvanized coating a shiny appearance
  • Aluminum-killed steel – steel treated with aluminum as an oxidizing agent in order to reduce the oxygen content to such a level that no reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification
  • Amphoteric – having the characteristics of an acid and a base and capable of reacting chemically either as an acid or a base
  • Anion – a negatively charged ion, especially the ion that migrates to an anode in electrolysis
  • Anode – the electrode of an electrolytic cell at which corrosion (oxidation) occurs, positive current flows from the anode through the electrolyte to the cathode; with respect to hot-dip galvanizing, anode refers to zinc, which corrodes sacrificially to protect steel
  • Anodic – exhibiting the properties of an anode; zinc is anodic to steel
  • Application – the act of putting to use; specifically, the use to which galvanized steel will be put
  • Aqueous – relating to, similar to, containing, or dissolved in water; watery
  • Ash – solid byproduct formed in the galvanizing process, consisting primarily of zinc oxides, that remains on the surface of the kettle; commonly referred to as “skimmings”
  • Ash inclusions – ash or skimmings carried out of the kettle on parts; ash inclusions remain solidified in the coating
  • Assemblies – the fitting together of manufactured parts into a complete structure, machine, or unit of a machine; assemblies sometimes require specific design features in order to be optimally galvanized
  • ASTM – American Society of Testing and Materials
  • Atmosphere – a surrounding influence or environment that affects the rate of corrosion; frequency and amount of moisture, humidity, chlorides, sulfides, and wind are some of the atmospheric components affecting corrosion rates
  • AZA – American Zinc Association

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B

  • Barrier protection – the protection provided by inhibiting oxidation (rust) by an insoluble top-coating such as zinc, which isolates steel from any electrolytes that would assist the corrosion process
  • Bond strength – the strength with which two or more items are joined; the resistance that must be overcome in order to separate the joined materials, e.g. steel and zinc-iron alloy layers of the galvanized coating, or galvanized reinforcing steel and concrete
  • Brown staining – reaction between exposed intermetallic layers (specifically the iron portion of the layers) and oxygen, resulting in surface color changes from gray to brown
  • Bracing – metal that is attached to a fabrication prior to galvanizing in order to provide support so that the steel does not change shape during heating and cooling; can be temporary or permanent

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C

  • Camber – the condition of having an arched surface
  • Carbon – naturally occurring element commonly found in steel
  • Cast iron – a generic term for a large family of cast ferrous alloys
  • Cast steel – steel in the form of an object at or near finished shape, produced by pouring molten steel into a mold
  • Casting – an object at or near finished shape obtained by solidification of a metal or alloy in a mold
  • Cathode – the electrode of an electrolytic cell at which reduction occurs; positive current flows from the anode (zinc) through the electrolyte to the cathode (steel)
  • Cathodic – exhibiting properties of a cathode; steel is cathodic in relation to zinc
  • Cathodic protection – reduction or prevention of corrosion of a metal surface by making it a cathode in an electrolytic cell, using either a galvanic or impressed current; zinc cathodically protects steel, i.e. sacrificially giving up electrons to protect the steel from corrosive attack
  • Caustic cleaning – the cleaning of steel in a solution with high alkalinity; in the hot-dip galvanizing process, organic residues are removed by immersing steel in a tank of caustic solution
  • Centrifuging – the process of removing excess zinc from small hot-dip galvanized parts by placing them in a perforated, rapidly spinning cylindrical container
  • Chemical cleaning – the process of immersing steel in chemical solvents to remove (dissolve) residues that would otherwise prevent the galvanized coating from forming
  • Chemical composition – the makeup of steel, broken down into naturally occurring elements; usually carbon, manganese, phosphorous, silicon as primary elements
  • Chromate quenching – treating metal in a tank of containing a solution of chromium compounds to produce a conversion coating consisting of trivalent and hexavalent chromium compounds; chromate passivations sometimes are used on galvanized reinforcing bar to control reactions between zinc and concrete while the concrete cures, particularly the hydrogen evolution that adversely affects bonding; chromate quenching other galvanized articles prevents the formation of wet storage stain
  • Chromating – chromate quenching a galvanized article
  • Cleaning – the process of chemically or mechanically removing unwanted residue or contaminants (mill scale, rust, dirt, oil) from the surface of a steel article prior to galvanizing
  • Cleaning solutions – liquids used to remove unwanted residue or contaminants (mill scale, rust, dirt, oil) from the surface of steel prior to galvanizing, typically alkali caustic solution, hydrochloric or sulfuric acid, and zinc ammonium chloride flux solution
  • Coating thickness – the thickness of the zinc coating, measured in mils (0.001 inches) or micrometers (10-6 meters)
  • Cold-galvanizing – See zinc-rich paint
  • Cold-rolled steel – steel that has been produced from a hot-rolled pickled coil and given substantial cold reduction at room temperature; cold-rolled steel is characterized by improved surface smoothness, greater uniformity in thickness and improved mechanical properties when compared to hot-rolled steel
  • Cold-working – bending or forming ambient-temperature steel; this action induces stresses that may be released during the galvanizing process
  • Containment – the act, process, or means to keep within prescribed limits
  • Contraction – the shrinkage of steel due to cooling of the part after removal from the galvanizing kettle
  • Corrosion – the chemical or electrochemical reaction between a material and its environment that produces a deterioration of the material and its properties; zinc chemically reacts with elements in the atmosphere, thereby sacrificially corroding to prevent underlying steel corrosion
  • Cracking (concrete) – the breaking of concrete due to the expansive forces caused by the formation of iron-oxide corrosion products on unprotected reinforcement bars
  • CSA – Canadian Standards Association

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D

  • Delta layer – the second layer of zinc-iron alloy growth from the base steel formed during the galvanizing process; the Delta layer’s chemical composition is approximately 90% zinc and 10% iron; the Delta layer is 60% harder than the base steel it protects from abrasion and corrosion
  • Design – to create, fashion, execute, or construct steel according to plan so that it will yield a quality hot-dip galvanized coating
  • Diamond Pyramid Number – (DPN) system of assigning values to metals quantifying their hardness
  • Dissimilar metals – two or more different metals in contact; due to varying surface conductivity, one or more metals may experience accelerated corrosion; because zinc is high in the galvanic series (see Galvanic Series of Metals), it preferentially corrodes to protect most dissimilar metals
  • Dissolution – the act of dissolving, sundering, or separating into component parts; separation
  • Distortion – any deviation from an original size, shape or contour that occurs when the application of heat during the galvanizing process releases stress from the steel induced in the fabrication process or during the steel-making process; distortion is of concern when galvanizing asymmetric structural shapes and/or fabrications
  • Double-dipping (see progressive-dipping) – the act of dipping steel, too large in one dimension to completely fit into the galvanizing kettle, more than once in cleaning solutions and molten zinc metal in order to produce a coating that covers the entire surface of the steel
  • Drainage – the act, process, or mode of becoming emptied or freed of cleaning solutions and/or zinc
  • Dross – byproduct of the galvanizing process that forms by reactions between zinc and loose particles of iron; dross may exist at all depths of the kettle, but usually sinks to the bottom
  • Dross inclusions – dross that is carried out on the work upon removal from the galvanizing kettle
  • Drossing – removing dross buildup from the bottom of the kettle
  • Dry galvanizing – dipping steel in an aqueous zinc ammonium chloride solution and then thoroughly drying before immersing in the molten zinc bath
  • Ductile iron – molten iron treated with an element such as magnesium or cerium to induce a measurable degree of ductility to the metal; these additives do not affect galvanizeability
  • Ductility – the ability of a material to be formed without fracturing; galvanized steel is ductile within certain recommended bending radii
  • Duplex systems – galvanized steel that has been coated with an additional corrosion-inhibiting product, typically liquid or powder paint; the two separate coating systems work synergistically to provide enhanced corrosion protection

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E

  • Electrical isolation – separating two conductive materials from electrical contact; galvanized steel is sometimes electrically isolated in order to prevent rapid consumption of the zinc coating
  • Electrode – see anode or cathode, whichever is appropriate
  • Electrolyte – an ionized chemical substance or mixture, usually liquid, that will conduct electric currents; water, soil, or many chemical solutions
  • Embrittlement – reduction in the normal ductility of a metal due to a physical or chemical change that may occur when cold-worked steel is immersed in molten zinc in the galvanizing kettle
  • Environment – the complex of physical, chemical, and biotic factors (climate, soil, living things) that act upon metal and ultimately affect the corrosion rate
  • Eta layer – the fourth, outer layer of the galvanized coating solely comprised of zinc
  • Excess zinc – extra amounts of zinc that may accumulate on the steel because of chemical composition of the steel or the profile/design of the steel and/or fabrication
  • External venting – holes that prevent high-pressure gas buildup in enclosed fabrications dipped in the molten zinc of the galvanizing bath

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F

  • Fabrication – steel configurations constructed from diverse and usually standardized steel members
  • Fasteners – manufactured steel products (bolts, nails, etc.) used to connect two or more steel members
  • Fatigue strength – the maximum stress that can be sustained for a specified number of cycles without failure, the stress being completely reversed within each cycle unless otherwise stated
  • Faying surfaces – the surface of a piece of metal (or a member) in contact with another to which it is or is to be joined
  • Ferrous metals – metals containing iron
  • Finishing – final stages of inspection and preparing galvanized steel so that it complies with specification(s)
  • Flux – chemicals used to protect steel from oxidation prior to entering the molten zinc-containing kettle
  • Flux inclusions – Flux carried out onto the work from the top flux blanket incorporated in the ‘wet’ process; occurs only in the ‘wet’ galvanizing process
  • Fluxing – the process by which steel is dipped in aqueous zinc ammonium chloride to remove undesirable substances and to protect it from further oxide formation prior to entering the galvanizing bath
  • Forged steels – steels formed by plastically deforming metal, usually hot, into desired shapes with compressive force, with or without dies
  • Freshwater – sodium-chloride-free water, especially when considered as a natural resource

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G

  • Galling – a condition whereby excessive friction between high spots on two different steel parts results in localized welding
  • Galvanic corrosion – corrosion associated with the current of a galvanic cell consisting of two dissimilar conductors in an electrolyte solution, or two similar conductors in dissimilar electrolytes
  • Galvanic Series of Metals – a listing of metals and alloys arranged according to their relative electrode potentials in a specified environment; indicates what metal(s) will corrode first when two or more metals are in contact
  • Galvanizing – the act of coating steel with zinc in order to provide barrier and cathodic protection from corrosion
  • Galvanizing temperature – the temperature at which the molten zinc bath is kept in order to react with the steel; typically, this temperature is between 830 F (443 C) and 850 F (454 C)
  • Gamma layer – the first layer of zinc-iron alloy growth from the base steel formed during the galvanizing process; the chemical composition of this layer is approximately 75% zinc and 25% iron; the Gamma layer has a DPN of 250, compared to the base steel’s DPN of 159
  • Grinding – mechanically removing material from a work-piece with a grinding wheel or abrasive belt
  • Grit-blasting – abrasive blasting with small irregular pieces of steel, malleable cast iron or hard nonmetallic materials

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H

  • Handling – the process by which steel articles are carried throughout the galvanizing facility, by chain, wire, hook, or racked in a fixture
  • Hardness – resistance of metal to plastic deformation, usually by indentation; the term may also refer to stiffness or temper, or to resistance to scratching, abrasion or cutting
  • Heat-treating – heating and cooling a solid metal or alloy in such a way as to obtain desired conditions or properties
  • High-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel – steels with a high yield point and low percentages (<1.25%) of other alloying components
  • High-strength steel – steels that have a tensile strength over 150 ksi (1100 MPa)
  • Hinges – a jointed or flexible device upon which a door, lid, or other swinging part turns
  • Holding devices – fixtures used to connect fabrications/parts to be galvanized to handling equipment in the galvanizing facility
  • Hot-rolled steel – steel deformed plastically at such a temperature and strain-rate that re-crystallization takes place simultaneously with the deformation, thus avoiding strain-hardening; this is the most common type of steel galvanized
  • Hydrochloric acid – solution used in the cleaning stages of the galvanizing process and consisting of one hydrogen ion and one chloride ion (chemical formula: HCl) in mixture with water
  • Hydrogen embrittlement – a condition of low ductility in metals resulting from the absorption of hydrogen

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I

  • Identification – marking/labeling steel so that different customer products can be distinguished from one another after galvanizing
  • Impact resistance – the ability to avoid damage due to contact with a forceful motion or object; galvanized coatings’ uppermost, pure zinc Eta layer is relatively soft and absorbs impact shock, protecting the underlying alloy layers
  • Impurities – elements or compounds in which their presence is undesired
  • Insoluble – not soluble; incapable or difficult of being dissolved, as by liquid; as, chalk is insoluble in water
  • Inspection – coating thickness and surface condition verifications
  • Intermetallic – interior layers of the galvanized coating that have distinct proportions of the alloying metals iron and zinc; e.g. Delta, Gamma & Zeta layers
  • Internal stress – also known as residual stress, stress present in a steel member or fabrication that is free of external forces or thermal gradients
  • Internal venting – holes on the inside of enclosed fabrications that allow cleaning solutions, zinc, and any gases to freely flow throughout the structure
  • ISO: International Organization for Standardization – A network of national standards institutes from 140 countries working in partnership with international organizations, governments, industry, business and consumer representatives. The source of ISO 9000 and more than 13,000 international standards for business, government and society. Click here to view the Foreign Specification & ASTM Cross-Reference Chart.
  • IZA – International Zinc Association

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K

  • Kettle – molten zinc-filled tank where the metallurgical bonding of zinc and steel takes place

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L

  • Lifting points – connectors (sometimes temporary) directly on the steel article that aid the galvanizer in handling the article throughout the galvanizing process
  • Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) – third-party certification program and nationally accepted benchmark for the design, construction, and operation of high-performance green buildings
  • Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) – standardized scientific method for the systematic analysis of all mass and energy flows as well as environmental impacts attributed to a product system, from raw material acquisition to end-of-life management 
  • Life-Cycle Inventory (LCI) – the study and measurement of the material flows, energy flows, and environmental releases for the production of a defined amount of a product

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M

  • Machined surfaces – surfaces cleaned or otherwise altered by a power-driven machine
  • Malleable iron – iron that permits plastic deformation in compression without rupture
  • Manganese – a grayish white, usually hard and brittle metallic element found in steel that resembles iron but is not magnetic
  • Masking – using a material to produce intentionally ungalvanized areas, typically used in areas that are to be welded, on faying surfaces, or areas where the galvanized coating is not necessary for uniform corrosion protection
  • Matte – dull, lacking or deprived of shine; matte-gray galvanized appearance may result from steel chemistry or may be intentionally induced when the galvanized steel’s use defines reflectivity limits
  • Mechanical cleaning – removing residues or impurities from steel using mechanical force such as grinding or sandblasting
  • Mechanical properties – the properties of a material that reveal its elastic and inelastic behavior when force is applied, thereby indicating its suitability for mechanical applications; for example, elasticity, tensile strength, elongation, hardness, and fatigue limit
  • Metallizing – forming a metallic coating by atomized spraying with molten zinc or by vacuum deposition; also called spray metalizing; applying an electrically conductive metallic layer to the surface of another material
  • Metallurgical – relating to the study of metals and their properties in bulk and at the atomic level
  • Metallurgical bond – the bonding of iron/zinc intermetallic layers to the base steel
  • Mill lacquer – organic protective coating applied to steel parts, usually pipes or tubes, to protect the parts during shipping; this material cannot be removed by the usual galvanized cleaning methods
  • Mill scale – a heavy, embedded iron oxide layer formed during hot fabrication or heat-treatment of steels

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N

  • Nickel – common element found in the galvanizing kettle to suppress the reactivity of silicon and phosphorus in the steel
  • Notching – cutting out various shapes from the edge of a strip, blank or part

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O

  • Organic contaminants – surface impurities (dirt, grease, oil, paint markings) that will hinder the formation of the galvanized coating, usually removed in the caustic cleaning stages of the galvanizing process
  • Overlapping surfaces – created when one area of a metal structure is covered by the surface of another metal structure
  • Overtapping – cutting female fastener threads of nuts or threaded holes larger than standard to account for the increased diameter of the galvanized (male) mating part
  • Oxidized – to combine with oxygen; make into an oxide

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P

  • Passivation – changing chemically active metal surfaces to a much less reactive state (see phosphating and chromating)
  • Patina – relatively insoluble zinc carbonate layer that forms as the galvanized coating weathers, providing added corrosion protection and abrasion resistance
  • Phosphating – forming an adherent phosphate coating on a metal by immersion in a suitable aqueous phosphate solution, commonly used to promote better adhesion of paint to galvanized steel
  • Phosphorus – naturally occurring element commonly found in steel, particularly reactive in molten zinc metal
  • Pickling – removing surface oxides from metals by immersion in ambient temperature, dilute hydrochloric acid or hot (180 F/82 C) sulfuric acid
  • Pinhole – small hole left in a weld area that allows low viscosity liquids to enter and become pressurized under the high-temperature conditions of the molten zinc bath
  • Pitch diameter – the diameter of a fastener cylinder prior to threading
  • Pitted surfaces – areas of metal where small, sharp cavities exist, usually formed by corrosion
  • Polarization – the partial or complete polar separation of positive and negative electric charges in a nuclear, atomic, molecule or chemical system
  • Post-treatment – subjecting the steel to specific processes after it has been galvanized (see quenching, phosphating, and chromating)
  • Pre-flux – the process of fluxing steel before it enters the galvanizing kettle as opposed to using a top-flux layer, which would be located on top of the molten zinc in the kettle
  • Pre-treatment – subjecting steel to specific processes before galvanizing
  • Progressive dipping – the act of dipping steel more than once in cleaning solutions and molten zinc metal in order to produce a coating that covers the entire surface of the steel; commonly done when the steel article/fabrication is too large to fit entirely into the kettle in one dip

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Q

Quenching – rapid cooling by dipping galvanized steel in a tank filled with a liquid solution; usually water or a dilute chromate or phosphate solution

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R

  • Racking – the process of arranging articles on a rack in order to transport them more efficiently through the galvanizing process
  • Reduce – to remove oxygen from (a compound)
  • Reinforcing steel (rebar) – steel embedded in concrete to increase the concrete’s load strength
  • Repair – performing finishing work after galvanizing in order to meet standards or specifications, or coating areas of steel that have been exposed due to post-galvanizing fabrication, installation, or extremely rough handling
  • Residue – contaminants (oil, grease, dirt, rust, mill scale) that unless removed, will prevent complete galvanizing of the steel surface
  • Return current path – the path through which the current in an electric cell returns to the source
  • Rinsing – removing any active solution from the surface of steel by immersion in water Rust -* corrosion product consisting of hydrated iron oxides; this term is applicable only to ferrous (iron-containing) alloys
  • Rust – corrosion product consisting of hydrated iron oxides; this term is applicable only to ferrous (iron-containing) alloys
  • Rust staining – reaction between exposed intermetallic layers (specifically the iron portion of the layers) with oxygen, that cause mild red or brown staining.

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S

  • Saltwater – water with high concentrations of sodium chloride or other salts
  • Scale – a thick layer of embedded oxidation (rust) products on metals
  • Seal-welding – a weld used primarily to obtain tightness and prevent the flow of cleaning solutions and zinc into otherwise enclosed areas, to prevent flash steaming that causes localized ungalvanized areas
  • Service-life – anticipated length of time zinc will protect steel; the amount of time until enough of the galvanized coating is consumed and 5% of the substrate steel surface area shows signs of rust
  • Shearing – the type of force that causes or tends to cause two parts of the same body that are touching along a boundary to slide relative to each other in a direction parallel to their plane of contact
  • Shot-blasting – abrasive blasting steel with metal shot, usually to remove deposits or mill scale more rapidly or more effectively than can be done by sandblasting or chemical cleaning
  • Silicon – naturally occurring element commonly found in steel; silicon is particularly reactive in molten zinc metal
  • Silicon-killed steel – steel treated with silicon as an oxidizing agent in order to reduce the oxygen content to such a level that no reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification
  • Skimmings (ash) – galvanizing byproduct comprised mainly of zinc oxides; skimmings are recyclable
  • Skimmings Inclusions: skimmings carried out of the kettle on parts; inclusions remain solidified in the coating  
  • Skip-welding – alternating the weld so that it is not continuous or complete
  • Spalling (concrete) – the complete failure of concrete due to the expansive forces caused by the formation of corrosion products on unprotected reinforcement bars
  • Soluble – susceptible of being dissolved in a fluid; capable of solution; as some substances are soluble in alcohol which are not soluble in water
  • Spangle – the characteristic crystalline form exhibited by the solidified, hot-dipped zinc coating
  • Stainless steel – type of steel alloy that contains significant amounts of chromium and/or nickel and is typically very corrosion resistant due to its ability to passivate upon atmospheric exposure
  • Stamping – a general term covering almost all press operations, including blanking, shearing, hot-forming, cold-forming, drawing, bending, coining
  • Stenciling – the process by which lettering or a design through which a substance (ink, paint, or metallic powder) is forced onto a surface to be printed; commonly used to mark steel fabrications but generally does not remain after the galvanizing process
  • Storage – the area where galvanized articles are staged for pick-up or delivery
  • Strain-age embrittlement – the loss in ductility accompanied by an increase in hardness and strength that occurs when low-carbon steel (especially rimmed or capped steel) is aged following plastic deformation; the degree of embrittlement is a function of aging time and temperature, occurring in a matter of minutes at the galvanizing temperature but requiring a few hours to years at room temperature
  • Stress-relieving – heating to a suitable temperature, holding long enough to reduce residual stresses and then cooling slowly enough to minimize the development of new residual stresses
  • Structural – steel member of specific cross-sectional dimensions used in fabrication and/or construction, (e.g. H-beam, angle, I-beam, W-flange)
  • Structural steel shape – piece of steel of any specific design accepted as standard by the structural branch of the steel industry
  • Sulfuric acid – solution used in the cleaning stages of the galvanizing process that consists of two hydrogen ions and one sulfate ion (chemical formula: h2SO4) in a water mixture
  • Surface condition – state of the surface of the steel
  • Surface preparation – stages of cleaning that prepare the steel for finishing (galvanizing)
  • Sustainable Development (SD) – the social, economic, and environmental commitment to growth and development that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs
  • Sweep – direction or departure of a curve, a road, an arch, or the like, away from a rectilinear line

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T

  • Tank – container for chemicals used in the galvanizing process; steel is dipped sequentially in solution-containing tanks
  • Temporary bracing – metal that is attached to a fabrication prior to galvanizing in order to provide added support so that the steel does not change shape during heating and cooling; temporary bracing is removed after galvanizing.
  • Thermal expansion – the process by which steel becomes larger upon heating
  • Thermodynamic – characteristics of or resulting from the conversion of heat into other forms of energy
  • Threaded parts – parts such as bolts and rods that allow nuts to be screwed onto one or both ends
  • Touch-up – performing finishing work after galvanizing in order to meet standards or specifications, or coating areas of steel that have been exposed due to post-galvanizing fabrication, installation, or extremely rough handling

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V

  • Venting – providing holes in fabrications to be galvanized to allow entrapped, heated liquids and gases to escape as pressure increases
  • Vibrating – the process of removing excess zinc by rapidly shaking galvanized articles
  • Viscosity – the property of resistance to flow in a fluid or semi-fluid state
  • Voluminous – having great volume, fullness, or size

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W

  • Warping – twisting or curving of steel originally flat or straight
  • Weathering steel – corrosion-resistant steel that initially corrodes; the presence of corrosion products then limits the further oxidation of the metal
  • Weepage – the leaching out of trapped liquid solutions in galvanized structures, primarily through pinholes or gaps in welds that were not sealed over by zinc
  • Weld beads – deposits of filler metal from a welding pass
  • Weld flux – material used to prevent the formation of, or to dissolve and facilitate removal of, oxides and other undesirable substances
  • Weld residue – impurities left from the welding process; weld residue will inhibit the localized formation of the galvanized coating.
  • Weld slag – material resulting from the combination of weld material and weld flux; weld slag will inhibit localized formation of the galvanized coating
  • Welding – joining two or more pieces of material by applying heat or pressure, or both, with or without filler material, to produce a localized union through fusion or recrystallization across the interface
  • Wet galvanizing – using a liquid flux layer floated on top of the molten zinc; in the galvanizing process, final cleaning occurs as the material passes through the flux blanket before entering the molten zinc bath
  • Wet storage stain – white surface oxide and hydroxide that forms on newly galvanized steel when excessive moisture is present in poorly ventilated storage
  • Wheel-abrading – mechanical cleaning method used to remove small amounts of residues found on steels by means of a rough, rotating wheel
  • White rust – white, sticky substance comprised of basic zinc carbonate; forms when galvanized surfaces are constantly covered by water or water containing sulfides or chlorides

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Z

  • Zeta layer - the third layer of zinc-iron alloy growth from the base steel formed during the galvanizing process. The chemical composition of this layer is approximately 94% zinc and 6% iron. The Zeta layer has a DPN of 179, compared to the base steel's DPN of 159
  • Zinc – major element found in the galvanizing kettle that provides both barrier and cathodic protection for steel
  • Zinc ammonium chloride – typical component of the flux solution used in the cleaning phase of the galvanizing process
  • Zinc carbonate patina – relatively insoluble zinc carbonate layer that forms as the galvanized coating weathers, providing added corrosion protection and abrasion resistance
  • Zinc hydroxide – corrosion product formed in response to the presence of moisture on galvanized articles
  • Zinc oxide – basic corrosion product formed almost instantaneously on freshly galvanized articles after withdrawal from the molten zinc metal
  • Zinc patina – relatively insoluble zinc carbonate layer that forms as the galvanized coating weathers, providing added corrosion protection and abrasion resistance
  • Zinc solder – material used to touch-up and/or repair hot-dip galvanized surfaces
  • Zinc-iron alloy layers – inner layers of the galvanized coating formed from interdiffusion reactions between iron in the base steel and molten zinc metal, (e.g. Delta, Gamma, Zeta)
  • Zinc-rich paint – (also called “cold galvanizing”) material used to touch-up and or repair hot-dipped galvanized surfaces, providing barrier protection and some cathodic protection (if the concentration of zinc is above 94% in dry film thickness)

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